Technical Publications

Arctic development of the Canadian Beaufort Sea, Geohazards and Export Route Options

Ian Nash, Global Leader of Subsea Pipelines presented his paper Arctic development of the Canadian Beaufort Sea, Geohazards and Export Route Options in March 2015 at the Offshore Technology Conference, in Copenhagen, Denmark.

This paper highlights some of the geohazard issues facing Canadian Beaufort developments and considers what options exist for the safe and economical export of the product to market.

View Paper

View Presentation

Eliminating the Precommissioning Hydrotest for Deepwater Gas Pipelines

Peter Carr, Global Leader of Risk Management and Ian Nash, Global Leader of Subsea Pipelines presented their paper Eliminating the Precommissioning Hydrotest for Deepwater Gas Pipelines in June 2014 at the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, in Busan, Korea.

The paper describes the development of a preliminary case for using alternative integrity validation (AIV) for deepwater gas pipelines in place of the traditional precommissioning hydrotest. The features of an AIV program that would compensate for lack of a hydrotest are identified. Measures to prevent or detect linepipe damage or deterioration during transportation and installation are discussed. Quantitative reliability analysis methods are explored to compare the effectiveness of AIV and the traditional hydrotest in exposing the types of flaws typically found in girth welds. Recommendations are made for the collection of data on flaw frequencies and size distributions, as lack of these data is currently an impediment to the application of probabilistic models.

View Paper

MEIDP - findings and implications of the 2013 reconnaissance survey

The Middle East to India Pipeline (MEIDP) will provide an economic and secure source of gas for India, where the demand for energy will continue to increase over the coming decades. The proposed pipeline will be the deepest major infrastructure pipeline laid with water depths exceeding 3000m for significant sections of the 1200km route.

This paper aims to present the findings of the 2013 geophysical reconnaissance survey with particular focus on the geohazard areas that have to be crossed including the Omani and Indian Continental slopes, the Indus Fan, the Owen Fracture Zone and the potential location of compression facilities on the Qalhat seamount. Examples of data will demonstrate the challenges that need to be overcome in laying the pipe in these geohazard zones. The results of the survey will be discussed together with the process required to identify a feasible route and necessary
intervention works to bring this project closer to reality.

View Paper

Bringing the MEIDP closer to reality - findings of the 2013 reconnaissance survey

This paper presents the findings of the Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline reconnaissance data acquired along the 3450 m deep route from the 2013 geophysical survey with particular focus on the geohazard areas that have to be crossed including the Indian and Omani continental slopes, Owen Fracture Zone and the Indus Fan. Examples of data will demonstrate the challenges that need to be overcome in laying the pipe in these geohazard zones. The results of the survey will be discussed together with the process required to identify a feasible route and bring this project closer to reality.

View Paper

The Production & Testing of JCOE Linepipe for MEIDP Pipleine's 3500m application

The Middle East to India Deepwater pipeline calls for line-pipe to be installed in water depths approaching 3500m. Design of the wall thickness suitable for such depths has utilised DNV OS-F101 (2010) design code, modified to included an enhanced fabrication factor αfab of 1.0, based on the heat soaking effect during a standard 3 layer coating process. In 2011 and 2012 two Indian pipe mills, manufactured line-pipe to MEIDP diameter, wall thickness and specification by JCOE method. In order to facilitate testing of line-pipe joints during production, a ring test rig and methodology have been developed that facilitates ring tests on full scale ring slices 50mm in length in the pipe mills within a few hours, thus allowing its inclusion in the line-pipe ITP as a standard production test.

This paper presents the basic wall thickness design requirements and tracks the production and subsequent ring collapse testing of the MEIDP line-pipe by the JCOE method. The test program showed that the ring testing method was well suited to being performed on a production basis and was capable of achieving consistently repeatable collapse capacity results. The ring tests also clearly demonstrated the positive effect on the collapse capacity of heat soaking the pipeline at simulated coating 3LPP coating temperatures. Detailed results of the ring collapse testing both before and after heat soaking will be presented.

View Paper

MEIDP - The Deep Sea Gas Route to India

High pressure trunk lines have proved to be the safest and cheapest way of transporting gas to market for short to medium distances up to 2,500 kilometers, making the proposed SAGE Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline the optimal solution for gas delivery to the Indian Subcontinent. Linking the Middle East gas fields with India across the Arabian Sea for an offshore distance of 1300 kilometers, the SAGE gas transmission pipeline is designed to transport up to 1.1BCFD gas into the Indian energy markets.

This paper will present details of recent studies that have enhanced the technical and commercial feasibility of the SAGE system, which will reach a record water depth of 3400m, cross two continental slopes, an earthquake subduction zone (deepsea trench) and outfall debris of the river Indus fan.

The economic and socio-political drivers for such a project will be presented together with future schedule for first Gas. The current design status will be reviewed and the challenges faced by the project from both a design and installation perspective will be presented. As a project that builds from the Oman-India project of the 1990's with the changes in risk profile, in terms of industry and vessel readiness, will be reviewed and the status of the next generation of installation vessels to install such a pipeline will be presented.

View Paper

Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline (MEIDP) Crossing of the Owen Fracture Zone

The Middle East to India Pipeline (MEIDP) will provide an economic and secure source of gas for India, where the demand for energy will continue to increase over the coming decades. The proposed pipeline will be the deepest major infrastructure pipeline and will be laid in water depths exceeding 3000m for significant sections of the 1200km route.


This paper will summarise the findings of the 2013 geophysical reconnaissance survey with particular focus on the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) crossing, where the continental plate boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates meet forming a right lateral strike slip fault movement zone. The movement on the plate boundary will be investigated and examples of survey data will demonstrate the challenges that need to be overcome in crossing this major geohazard feature. The results of the survey will be discussed together with details of the geohazard design process required to identify a feasible route and necessary intervention works at this feature to bring this project closer to reality.

View Paper

Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline (MEIDP) crossing of the Indus Fan

The Middle East to India Pipeline (MEIDP) will provide an economic and secure source of gas for India, where the demand for energy will continue to increase over the coming decades. The proposed pipeline will be the deepest major infrastructure pipeline laid with water depths exceeding 3000m for significant sections of the 1200km route. In addition to its depth the MEIDP will have to contend with significant potential geohazards, namely the Indian and Omani continental slopes, the Indus Fan, the Owen Fracture zone and the Qalhat Seamount. Since the Mid 90's when the Oman India Pipeline (OIP) was first envisaged the crossing of the Indus Fan has been held up as one of the major technical challenges for such a deep pipeline.


This paper will give details of the 2013 geophysical reconnaissance survey along the MEIDP route, with particular focus on block reconnaissance performed for the area where the route crosses the Indus Fan which is characterized by two topographical main structures: The channel/levee systems of the Indus fan which dominate the central part of the survey area; and the deep sea basins in the easterly and westerly sections. The channel/levee system is characterized by central channels with a series of adjacent terraces and numerous abandoned channel loops, which are partially refilled by the overspill sediments from active canyon areas. The pipeline route crosses five turbidity current channels with side walls up to 200m high, in water depths between 2100m - 3200m. With the exception of Channel 1 the channels follow a meandering flow pattern with general N-S direction.  Channel side slopes up to 25° have been detected. Channel 1 on the western edge of the block follows a meandering E-W direction.


The results of the survey will be discussed together with details of the geohazard design process required to identify a feasible route across the Indus Fan and necessary intervention works at this feature to bring this project closer to reality.

View Paper

View Presentation

Integrated Approach to Flow Assurance & Transportation

In the present day of increasing hydrocarbon demand, the direction of oil exploration has moved to ever increasing offshore depths and more remote land masses with harsher environments. To this end, our industry has to adapt to the increasing challenges that have to be faced to ensure that these hydrocarbons can still be economically recovered. The flow assurance strategies that are currently being deployed to achieve successful hydrocarbons recovery from these increasing technically challenged areas, increasingly demand an integrated approach to the design of the transportation systems. It is no longer the case that each element of a hydrocarbon development can be designed in isolation.

Flow Assurance is not just an analytical routine to predict the pressure and temperature profiles of single and multi-phase pipelines, but an advanced tool-set that models the flow of hydrocarbons from the well bore all the way to the process facilities and beyond. The tools now used in Flow Assurance have improved the engineer‟s insight into the critical parameters to the point where informed design improvements can be made that could not previously have been justified.


The paper will consider the problems faced by today‟s ever more extreme transportation requirements, review current advanced methodologies for flow assurance for transportation systems and show how integration of flow assurance into systems design vastly improves and in some case enables hydrocarbon developments. Observations will be provided in the form of three short case presentations that have implemented advanced techniques to achieve robust solutions. Specifically:

  • Flow assurance issues and implications for ultra deep transportation pipelines
  • Planning for the removal of hydrates from wet gas field developments
  • Understanding Carbon Capture and Storage transportation systems

View Paper

Translation Gas Pipelines; A win-win situation for all

Presentation at the Progress Harmony Development (PHD) Conference New Delhi 13th of August 2013.

View Presentation

OTC 2009 - Does Scour Matter for Pile Foundation

In this paper, select bridge scour concepts are extended to apply to offshore pile scour prediction after necessary modifications. Pile behaviors with the presence of scour are studied, to identify the sensitive scour range for various types and sizes of offshore piles.

View Paper

The Production and Testing of MEIDP Line-Pipe for 3500m Application

This paper presents the basic wall thickness design requirements for the Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline (MEIDP) and tracks the production and subsequent ring collapse testing of this linepipe suitable for 3500m water depth. The test program showed that the ring testing method was well suited to being performed on a production basis and was capable of achieving consistently repeatable collapse capacity results. The ring tests also clearly demonstrate the effect on the collapse capacity of heat soaking the pipeline at simulated 3-Layer coating temperatures. Detailed results of the ring collapse testing both before and after heat soaking will be presented..

view paper

UDP 2011 Presentation - Inspection

Presentation on Inspection Maintainence and Repair of Deepwater Pipeline by Ian Nash at the Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference 27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles.

view presentation

UDP 2011 Presentation - Case Study

Presentation Case study: Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline(MEIDP) requirements for Installation, Intervention and Emergency Repair by Ian Nash at the Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference 27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles.

view presentation

OPT 2011 Paper - Deepwater Gas Route to India

Paper on The Deepwater Gas Route to India by Ian Nash and Peter Roberts presented at the Offshore Pipeline Technology Conference, 23 – 24 February 2011, Krasnapolsky Hotel, Amsterdam.

view paper

OPT 2011 Presentation - Deepwater Pipeline to India

Presentation on The Deepwater Gas Route to India by Ian Nash and Peter Roberts presented at the Offshore Pipeline Technology Conference, 23 – 24 February 2011, Krasnapolsky Hotel, Amsterdam.

view presentation

f65758eb15e5a3c1a65d562ef3e89834.jpg